Marconi employed electric waves of high frequency set up by an induction coil in an oscillator, these waves being launched into space through a lofty antenna. The receiving apparatus consisted of another antenna in circuit with a coherer and small battery for operating through a relay the ordinary telegraphic receiver. This apparatus contains the essential features of all the systems now in use. Wireless telephone, an apparatus or contrivance for wireless telephony. Wireless telephony, telephony without wires, usually employing electric waves of high frequency emitted from an oscillator or generator, as in wireless telegraphy. A telephone transmitter causes fluctuations in these waves, it being the fluctuations only which affect the receiver. [Webster 1913 Suppl.]
Wireless \Wire"less\, n. Short for Wireless telegraphy, Wireless telephony, etc.; as, to send a message by wireless. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] wirepuller
Word Netwireless adj : having no wires; "a wireless security system" [ant: wired]
2 transmission by radio waves
3 an electronic receiver that detects and demodulates and amplifies transmitted signals [syn: radio receiver, receiving set, radio set, radio, tuner]
4 a communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves [syn: radio]
Moby ThesaurusTeletype, Wirephoto, audio-frequency, beam, broadcast, cabinet, chassis, communication, communicational, communications, console, electronics, facsimile, headphone, headset, heterodyne, high-frequency, housing, line radio, magnetotelephonic, microtelephonic, monotelephonic, newscast, phototelegraphic, radiate, radio, radio receiver, radio set, radio telescope, radiobroadcast, radiophone, radiophotography, radiotelegraphic, radiotelegraphy, radiotelephone, radiotelephony, receiver, receiving set, send, set, shortwave, sign off, sign on, signal, sportscast, superheterodyne, telecommunication, telecommunicational, telegraphic, telephonic, telephotographic, television, thermotelephonic, transmit, wire wave communication, wired radio, wired wireless, wireless set, wireless telegraphy, wireless telephone, wireless telephony
not having any wires
- Finnish: langaton
- Portuguese: sem fio
of or relating to wireless telegraphy
- ttbc Dutch: draadloos
- ttbc French: sans fil
- ttbc German: drahtlos
- ttbc Persian: (bisim)
- ttbc Sindhi:
- ttbc Spanish: inalámbrico
The term wireless is normally used to refer to any type of electrical or electronic operation which is accomplished without the use of a "hard wired" connection. Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or very long (thousands or even millions of kilometers for radio communications). When the context is clear the term is often simply shortened to "wireless". Wireless communications is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.
It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice and keyboards, satellite television and cordless telephones.
Introduction to WirelessWireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g., radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.
Wireless communicationThe term "wireless" has become a generic and all-encompassing word used to describe communications in which electromagnetic waves or RF (rather than some form of wire) carry a signal over part or the entire communication path. Common examples of wireless equipment in use today include:
- Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business, industrial and Public Safety entities
- Consumer Two Way Radio including FRS (Family Radio Service), GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios
- The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio)
- Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios
- Cellular telphones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business.
- Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth.
- Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless.
- Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones.
- Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels.
Wireless networking (i.e. the various flavors of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used to meet a variety of needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:
- To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling,
- To avoid obstacles such as physical structures, EMI, or RFI,
- To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure,
- To link portable or temporary workstations,
- To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or
- To remotely connect mobile users or networks.
Wireless communication may be via:
- radio frequency communication,
- microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication, or
- infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from remote controls or via IRDA,
The term "wireless" should not be confused with the term "cordless", which is generally used to refer to powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a portable power source (e.g., a battery pack) without any cable or cord to limit the mobility of the cordless device through a connection to the mains power supply. Some cordless devices, such as cordless telephones, are also wireless in the sense that information is transferred from the cordless telephone to the telephone's base unit via some type of wireless communications link. This has caused some disparity in the usage of the term "cordless", for example in Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.
In the last 50 years, wireless communications industry experienced drastic changes driven by many technology innovations.
Historysee History of radio
The term "Wireless" came into public use to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver (a dual purpose receiver and transmitter device), establishing its usage in the field of wireless telegraphy early on; now the term is used to describe modern wireless connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet. It is also used in a general sense to refer to any type of operation that is implemented without the use of wires, such as "wireless remote control", "wireless energy transfer", etc. regardless of the specific technology (e.g., radio, infrared, ultrasonic, etc.) that is used to accomplish the operation.
Early wireless workDavid E. Hughes, eight years before Hertz's experiments, induced electromagnetic waves in a signaling system. Hughes transmitted Morse code by an induction apparatus. In 1878, Hughes's induction transmission method utilized a "clockwork transmitter" to transmit signals. In 1885, T. A. Edison uses a vibrator magnet for induction transmission. In 1888, Edison deploys a system of signaling on the Lehigh Valley Railroad. In 1891, Edison attains the wireless patent for this method using inductance ().
In the history of wireless technology, the demonstration of the theory of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz in 1888 was important. The theory of electromagnetic waves were predicted from the research of James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday. Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be transmitted and caused to travel through space at straight lines and that they were able to be received by an experimental apparatus. The experiments were not followed up by Hertz and the practical applications of the wireless communication and remote control technology would be implemented by Nikola Tesla.
The electromagnetic spectrum
Light, colours, AM and FM radio, and electronic devices make use of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the US the frequencies that are available for use for communication are treated as a public resource and are regulated by the Federal Communications Commission. This determines which frequency ranges can be used for what purpose and by whom. In the absence of such control or alternative arrangements such as a privatized electromagnetic spectrum, chaos might result if, for example, airlines didn't have specific frequencies to work under and an amateur radio operator was interfering with the pilot's ability to land an airplane. Wireless communication spans the spectrum from 9 kHz to 300 GHz. (Also see Spectrum management)
Applications of wireless technology
- Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings
Television remote control
Modern televisions use wireless (generally infrared) remote control units. Now we also use radio waves.
Cellular telephony (phones and modems)
- Perhaps the best known example of wireless technology is the cellular telephone and modems. These instruments use radio waves to enable the operator to make phone calls from many locations world-wide. They can be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the equipment that is required to transmit and receive the signal that is used to transfer both voice and data to and from these instruments.
WiFiMain Article: Wi-Fi
Categories of wireless implementations, devices and standards
- Amateur radio
- Communication radio
- Cordless telephony:DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
- Cellular systems:0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, Beyond 3G (4G), Future wireless
- List of emerging technologies
- Short-range point-to-point communication : Wireless microphones, Remote controls, IrDA, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), Wireless USB, DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications), EnOcean, Near Field Communication
- Wireless sensor networks : ZigBee, EnOcean; Personal area networks, Bluetooth, Ultra-wideband (UWB from WiMedia Alliance).
- Wireless computer networks: Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN), (IEEE 802.11 branded as WiFi and HiperLAN), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN) and Broadband Fixed Access (BWA) (LMDS, WiMAX, and HiperMAN)
wireless in Catalan: Sense fil
wireless in Czech: Bezdrátová komunikace
wireless in Spanish: Inalámbrica
wireless in Persian: باند بیسیم
wireless in French: Transmission sans fil
wireless in Korean: 무선 통신
wireless in Indonesian: Nirkabel
wireless in Italian: Wireless
wireless in Hebrew: תקשורת אלחוטית
wireless in Malagasy: Antso
wireless in Japanese: 無線通信
wireless in Portuguese: Wireless
wireless in Albanian: Përçimi i pateltë
wireless in Simple English: Wireless
wireless in Serbian: Мрежа преко бежичних система преноса
wireless in Finnish: Langaton tekniikka